A Farm of the Future

Last year I met a farmer overwhelmed with the desire to transform his family’s land into a place that would nourish people and planet for centuries to come.

Yesterday I saw the first giant leap towards that dream being expertly taken.

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Trees planted on contour. Note the compost added to some, these are high nutrient demanding trees due to heavy cropping, compost will also support healthy growth. Guards prevent damage by sheep and inside each is a food producing tree.

I worked with Chris Morgan of Cwrt Henllys farm near Cwmbran, Wales to design an agroforestry project for his family farm. Chris knows how unsustainable modern farming practices are and he wanted help to make changes. I suggested an agroforestry project unlike any other I’m aware of in the UK. Now the trees are in the ground, stretching their roots into the soil and transforming food production in this corner of the world.

The design at Cwrt Henllys is based on sound ecology, economics, agriculture and is infused with magic and hope. A mix of nuts, fruit trees, natives and non natives have been planted in rows on contour. Agroforestry in this country has been a little behind the times and primarily a little shy and unimaginative. This planting is brave, productive, resilient and vibrant.

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A brave new start for this piece of land and its custodians.

The walnuts, sweet chestnut, apples, pears, quinces, cob nuts, elm, hazel and elder to name a few, will produce high quality food. Unlike annual monocultures the diversity of production in the design will provide the full range of macro and micronutrients people require. Its diversity is also advantageous in a time of climatic change. The extreme weather that has famously been destroying whole landscapes of annual crops will effect perennials less. Furthermore whilst some will crop poorly in say a very mild winter others will thrive. Diversity ensures a crop and well selected varieties ensure good and reliable cropping.

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An unusual specimen of hazel which had retained some of its leaves throughout winter, produced new leaves and flowers in January. Diversity is of special interest due to the increasing problems with tree disease.

Currently most of the UK’s nut consumption is being met by foreign producers but there is growing movement to change this. Nuts can produce well in the UK and new fruits are becoming viable as well. The farmers I work with take a step outside of their comfort zone to make sustainable farming possible and I try my hardest to eliminate as many risks as possible for them. One of the attractions of agroforestry is that you run two or more crops together. So you might think of an orchard where sheep are grazed beneath or the vast American walnut and arable systems. This allows a farmer to continue with a crop they know which is likely to provide annual income from year one.

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An established agroforestry system at New Forest Farm where annuals are grown between rows of nut and fruit trees.

Whilst the trees at Cwrt Henllys will be producing food rich in protein, carbohydrates, fats, sugars, vitamins and minerals they are also quietly revolutionising the world around them. The projects I work on are designed to create habitat for other creatures enrich the soil, prevent erosion, absorb CO2 and countless other things. This is not just a poly culture its polyfunctional and it pays.

The edible woodland model pays dividends in ecological restoration. We live in an age where most food production inherently impoverishes the soil, the environment and the atmosphere. This form of regenerative or restorative food production enriches it, growing food and repairing landscapes.

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One of the native edibles, elder, bursts into life in the protection of the guard. It will produce edible flowers and berries but also host native insects who are the food of birds and mammals who themselves are food to larger predators.

These projects don’t just pay ecologically, they pay economically. The edible woodland model is designed for commercial production. Not that forest gardens aren’t wonderful but I’m interested in large scale production that can stand on its own two feet economically.

So each design balances diversity with volumes sufficient for profitable production. Generally food costs shamefully and unsustainably little but there are opportunities to sell fruit and nuts at a fair price and many producers are doggedly finding ways to make sustainable farming pay.

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Alexander Hunt of Potash Farm making nut production pay through adding value.

I urge you to be part if the transition to regenerative agriculture by supporting small scale, organic, agroforestry, agroecological and perennial based forms of food production. We need inspirational farmers like Chris but we also need inspirational consumers like you.

Anticipating Change with Real Farming

Today was the first day of the buzzing 2016 Oxford Real Farming Conference. The excellent minds and enthusiastic landworkers, landowners, academics and professionals filled Oxford Town Hall with a contagious, delicious mist of hope for the future of food production.

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Get involved at the ORFC

LEAF, Soil Association, CSA Network, Landworkers Alliance are just a few of the organisations present to galvanise us to be the force for change towards a restorative and sustainable form of food production and essentially human existence.

I’m looking forward to presenting on Edible Woodlands during the soapbox session. See you there!

Purdown Planted with Edibles

In two days 60 primary school children, 40 local people and a few committed Woodland Trust staff planted the UK’s first edible woodland in Purdown Open Space. Children from Glenfrome Primary School which neighbours the park planted over 140 native saplings on Friday excited about the elderflower cordial and hawthorn ketchup they’d be making in several years time.

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Planting a hawthorn, one of several trees this pair planted in under and hour!

In total over 700 trees were planted including apples, almonds, damsons, quinces, elm, wild cherry and hazel. As well as the enthusiastic pupils lots of the local people were keen to be involved in the care of the trees. The first opportunity will be to mulch them in the New Year. This will mark the first of several opportunities to be involved and learn about edible landscapes and tree care. Stay poised for more information!

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Using black plastic as a mulch has pro’s and cons but works well in a large scale panting like this. Help us mulch the rest of the trees in 2016.

So a big thank you to the lovely folk who cam out to plant this amazing legacy. I look forward to eating the raspberries with you all next year and the apples the following year, the hazels and almonds in a few years and all the while drinking delicious elderberry wine!

To discuss this edible woodland design or one for your own project get in touch.

Planting Woods to Eat

This Saturday (5th December 2015) the people of Bristol will be committing a revolutionary act. The first edible woodland intended specifically for public use will be planted at Purdown Open Space.

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Planting a cropping tree as a revolutionary act. (Photo: S Kind/WTML)

From 11-3pm hundreds of saplings will be lovingly planted to create a space designed to mimic natural British habitat but to maximise the uses for humanity. As opposed to annual agriculture an edible woodland provides habitat for native species as a main function. Where this planting differs from much of what we find in the city is that trees and shrubs have been selected based on their ability to provide food. Unlike the monocultures of limes or London planes found across Bristol and other UK cities in their thousands many of the trees to be planted at Purdown have multiple functions for people and wildlife, the woodland is designed for resilience.

The woodland planted at Purdown will be like any other woodland in many respects including having the benefits of habitat creation, carbon absorption, flood prevention, soil restoration and climate regulation. However it has a major advantage in that simultaneously meets basic human needs in very effective and efficient way. After a year of dubious results of Bristol being Green Capital this is a strong legacy from Bristol City Council who with the help of the Woodland Trust are making this design a reality.

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The planting proposal went to consultation and will replace this monoculture of grass. (Photo: Amelia Lake)

Unlike a forest garden the edible woodland is designed to be high density, with more trees in an area. This key difference means that besides shrubs, which will be represented by currants, gooseberries and others, other layers are not planted. This means less ground cover crops than in a forest garden but more tree crops. With time native woodland species will colonise the area unless keen green fingered locals decide to put edibles there instead.

It is hoped that people at Purdown will take ownership of the edible woodland, evolving the design. Imagine comfrey amongst the apples, and wild garlic under the hazel. My vision of an edible woodland is for an entire landscape, well its of a whole new way of human existence. A space designed by people and made my nature which enables humanity to live in balance with the world around them, foraging their needs. Its less of a garden more of a Fukuoka style of setting something into motion and adapting to the results.

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The planting will adjoin an existing young woodland.

The planting at Purdown is humble in size but represents the ambitious beginning of a new form of land use and human existence. In a city where people are chomping at the bit for innovative ways of using space, growing food, making room for nature and exploring alternative ways living a publicly accessible woodland aimed to provide proteins, carbohydrates, sugars and vitamins whilst performing a whole host of ecosystem services I’m sure will be welcomed.

So I hope you’ll join us to plant a tree for a better world on Saturday 5th December 11-3 or visit Purdown Open Space via the Heyford Avenue entrance, BS5 6UQ any time to see how the UK’s first public edible woodland is getting on.

If you are interested in planting an edible woodland or agro forestry project on privately or publicly held land of any size please contact me to discuss.

Planting the Wild Wood

You may have noticed radio silence from me recently. That’s because I have been working hard on developing a land use model which facilitates the rewilding of human society. I’ve outlined in previous posts why I believe that humans need to reconnect with the rest of life on earth as a starting point for renewing our ability to live harmoniously on this planet.

In order for us to begin to live as the wild, interconnected beings we are we need landscapes which are conducive. So I’ve been consulting experts across the country and come up with a design for a type of land use which integrates conservation and production of materials to meet human needs. The model I have established aims to rewild, restore or ‘renature’ spaces so that they are to some degree self-determining and support a very high volume and diversity of plants and animals which work together synergistically.

The beginnings of a forest garden at Blaeneinion, Wales. Spacing is sufficient for a productive understory.

The beginnings of a forest garden at Blaeneinion, Wales. Spacing is sufficient for a productive understory.

This model of edible woodlands is designed to produce high volumes of nutritious food, fibres and medicines without relying on annual agriculture, monocultures, oil or social inequality. Instead edible woodlands absorb CO2 from the atmosphere, increase biodiversity and resilience and can be created with social equality at their core.

Fundamentally an edible woodland is a perennial polyculture which mimics the savannah landscape which existed in temperate climates prior to human prevalence. If you think of a mix between a newly planted mixed broadleaf woodland with glades and a forest garden on a much much bigger scale you will start see what an edible woodland can look like. It is a productive landscape where the emphasis is on foraging not cultivating, on perennial foods rather than annuals and on integration rather than segregation.

Having created this model I have been exploring locations and partners to work with to create the UK’s first edible woodlands. The aim is to create these landscapes and the knowledge base for their use for the general public in a range of locations and at a diversity of scales. I’m currently working on both urban and rural projects with councils and farmers. There is a growing movement towards agroforestry, regenerative agriculture and Community Supported Agriculture models and my model of edible woodlands intends to perform all of these functions.

Scientific agroforestry trials at the Organic Research Centre in Suffolk point towards the greater productivity of perennial systems.

Scientific agroforestry trials at the Organic Research Centre in Suffolk point towards the greater productivity of perennial systems.

As the days draw in and that rich, musty smell of autumn fills the air I’ll be putting the finishing touches on designs for the foraging grounds of the future. And when all the branches are bare and the air is cold and clear I’ll be planting woodlands which sustain the whole range of life in the temperate biome, an environment where we can remember who we are. I hope you’ll join me, hands in the soil, heart in the wild wood.

Integrated Rewilding and Permaculture (Magazine)

Loads of stimulating and informative articles in here, including my mandate for a rewilded human existence

Loads of stimulating and informative articles in here, including my mandate for a rewilded human existence

I’m pleased to see my vision for a more sustainable and sustaining human existence based on deep participation in life outlined in Permaculture Magazine this issue.

I challenge some of the ideas associated with rewilding and set out a manifesto for integrating people and planet, agriculture and conservation, civilised and wild. I advocate a holistic approach to rewilding which includes rewilding ourselves first and foremost, reconnecting with the reality of our wildness. I look at what kind of landscapes we might shape as a rewilded society and how a better future is within reach.

To see my article check out Permaculture Magazine 84 OUT NOW! Buy it here:

http://permaculture.co.uk/issue/summer-2015

Foraging Walk Eastville Park

An Eastville Park feast!

An Eastville Park feast!

Discover a new world of foraged wild food on the 16th May in Eastville Park. I’m leading a foraging walk in the park for people who want to know how to enjoy nature’s bounty in the city. Learn how to safely munch on delicious free and wild foods including flowers, berries, nuts and leaves.

From 14:00-16:00 we’ll read the landscape, identify plants and taste treats made from wild foods.

This event is by donation, suggested at £5. To find out more and for booking email ameliajlake@gmail.com

Three Miles, Thirty Snacks: Foraging Near Bristol

I used to think I liked growing and foraging because I was obsessed with food. And when I stopped over 30 times on a very short walk to investigate snacks you’d be justified in believing my relationship with food is unhealthy!

I don’t forage because I’m obsessed with food or hungry or I like free stuff although these are all reasons some people forage and these are all small factors in why I forage. At the root of it I forage to remember I am alive, to remember I am a free, wild animal, embedded in life, a part of the ecosystem able to exist in it like all others. Growing my own food, including foragable foods and foraging wherever I am is born from a wish to participate, to connect with plants, with places, with life and myself. I snack on leaves, flowers, berries, collect wild edibles to include in meals. I enjoy the strong and diverse flavours, and relish the knowledge that the wild foods I eat are full of nutrients and goodness.

Sloe flowers, delicately delicious as they are or an almond flavoured ingredient in sloe syrup

Sloe flowers, delicately delicious as they are or an almond flavoured ingredient in sloe syrup

Reading the Landscape

Last week during a short circular walk near Walton-in-Gordano, near Bristol I discovered some fantastic plants springing into life. Before setting off I knew the walk would yield a great variety of plants because, even from a map I could see that covering woodland, scrub and coastal path the short journey would be diverse. I also knew that the diversity of exposed and sheltered and shady spots would provide plants of the same species at different stages of growth. A sloe on the cliff edge was in full blossom whereas a similar sized bush 100 metres away in a sunny, shelterd spot had long finished.

Seasonality

Generally spring foraging is full of fresh leaves and shoots and with this consistently warm weather many flowers have come a little early. There are many plants at this time of year, such as rosebay willowherb who’s leaves will soon be bitter or tough and so enjoying them now is a good idea. There are also those plants which are almost on the decline such as the ramsons, primroses and three cornered leek. They’ve made the most of the early spring sun beneath trees and will flower and die back until next year.

The lush leaves of ramsons, flower buds indicates that the time for picking is nearly over

The lush leaves of ramsons, flower buds indicates that the time for picking is nearly over

Preserving

For the past few years I got into preserving things like wild garlic/ramsons by making pestos, chutneys, jams etc and all those jars of scrumptiousness were savoured. There are loads of great recipes out there which allow us to learn how to cook with our indigenous foods. As I was getting excited about the ways I could hoard these wild foods couldn’t help but notice the large amounts of oil, nuts, sugar and time and energy for cooking that went into a lot of my creations. I felt that my wild foods had come to demand quite a lot of resource use. This year I am putting more emphasis on replacing vegetables I’d usually consume form the shop with foraged food. From the three mile walk this meant picking a smaller amount of ramsons which replaced a leek in leek and potato soup I planned to make.

Sea spinach really offers the opportunity for bulk

Sea spinach really offers the opportunity for bulk

Integrating

When I saw a big patch of sea spinach plants as large as small shrubs I knew I wanted them in stir fry. Just very lightly cooked to preserve their substantial texture and mild flavour they brought lots of iron and other nutrients to the meal. Other leaves such as hawthorn, garlic mustard/jack-by-the-hedge, herb robert and even nettle are used in small quantities each to make salads packed with flavour. Wild leaves are much stronger than the salad we are used to but used carefully their flavours can be played against each other. The creamy, nutty flavours of nettles with the garlic tang of jack-by-the-hedge and the lemon of wild sorrel with smoothness of hawthorn makes a taste sensation which doesn’t need dressing to make it appetising.

The wonderfully summery coconut flavour of furze/gorse is irresistible

The wonderfully summery coconut flavour of furze/gorse is irresistible when you pass by

But probably my favourite way to enjoy foraged food is on the go, I know, what about the slow food movement! But when I’m out and about, even in the city I enjoy finding food to eat there and then, just a bite or two of delicious, healthy flowers, leaves, berries, nuts or seeds. I’d say that even urban areas have the capacity for everyone to have a relationship with their environment in this way. A couple of rolled nettle leaves on the way to work, some furze/gorse flowers during a walk along the river, a few wild raspberries on a day out. Through this constant relationship with and alertness to our surroundings e come to realise how nurturing nature is if we pay attention, we understand that we do not need to act upon it but to listen and act with nature.

So I’m encouraging people to come and learn some edibles they can enjoy on a foraging walk in Eastville Park, Bristol on the 16th May 14:00-16:00. Suggested donation £5. Email or call to book: ameliajlake@gmail.com or 07725857637

Closed Loop Living: Wee, Wood and Waste Food

Arriving back to our inner city terraced house yesterday night was a bit of a shock to the system. My partner and I spent the glorious Easter bank holiday on our land in Cornwall. Without really realising we had settled into a much more closed loop existence. Although not explicit in our aims for our land and lives it is implicit to our principles that life on our land should become a closed affair.

By this I mean that both inputs and outputs should be reduced to a minimum. Reducing inputs includes our principle of managing our land without the input of fossil fuels, it means producing as much of our physical needs as possible including food, fibre and medicine. And importantly it means doing all this without much input of resources. Anyone who has had a look in our shed will notice a large stash of ‘resources’. We have old windows, bits of board, pots, old tools and much more shoved in our small but bulging shed. Almost all of these have been saved from landfill so in a wider sense we have saved them from becoming outputs (also known as waste/rubbish) of the larger system. We try to avoid energy intense inputs. Food grown by hand using green and local horse manures, shed built with recycled materials, water collected in recycled tanks etc, you get the idea.

Recycled water tank attached to the recycled gutter, mounted on the recycled timber above the recycled window, next to a pile of recycled materials and a recycled woman!

In our daily lives outputs include CO2, rubbish, human waste, waste embodied in the items we consume, heat and energy. On our land there is no electricity, there is now water, no sewage system. So CO2 outputs are kept to a minimum, driving to the land whilst charging a lantern for evening light, a little cooking on a gas hob and embodied emissions is about it. We have also been able to plant hundreds of trees to help absorb some of our CO2 emissions.

A ceramic pot placed in side a trug with the gap filled with gravel. Whole thing sits in the stream and stays extremely cool.

A ceramic pot placed in side a trug with the gap filled with gravel. Whole thing sits in the stream and stays extremely cool.

We kept a small amount of food cool successfully by locating it cleverly. However we aim to have a naturally cooled fridge like this one of Pat Bowcock at Ourganics. we kept ourselves warm through burning a small amount fallen wood from our (less than 2 acre) woodland in our woodburner. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions are definitely up for improvement but are a great deal lower than we can achieve in our rented home.

The findings of a previous bin dive with lots of fresh fruit and veg in it

The findings of a previous bin dive with lots of fresh fruit and veg in it

When it comes to rubbish we didn’t really have any. We ate food thrown out from the nearest shop (yes, our land is remote so we had to drive there) so we actually rescued rubbish from landfill! That included taking the recyclable packaging out of landfill too and letting them become something new, satisfying. In the long term we intend that most of our nutrient needs will be met from the land and foraging locally. Although this would mean reducing how much energy, matter and nutrients we prevent from leaving the system there is only so much supermarket food my body can take!

I know, I know you want me to talk shit! Well our human waste is dealt with very safely and efficiently. We have a compost toilet which allows us to keep nutrients in the cycle and to prevent the use of energy and chemicals as with water closets. The composted poo and wood chippings (these come from our land too) will become a lovely rich organic matter that we’ll spread around our fruit trees. Yes it really is from poo to plums!

How a compost toilet creates a closed loop (from  the amazing Humanure book by Joseph Jenkins)

How a compost toilet creates a closed loop (from the amazing Humanure book by Joseph Jenkins)

When it comes to wee I recently discovered quite how nitrogen rich it is. Martin Crawford’s fabulous book states that there is about 5.6g of nitrogen in each wee! Compare that to 6g in a kg of manure and you start to treasure your urine! So we have been separating our wee and poo so we can feed our liquid gold directly to our fruit trees to encourage lots of strong growth this spring.

Although there were still lots of inputs and outputs in our weekend on our land it showed me that closed loop living is not as distant as it can seem. Clever design is essential in creating a closed loop world. Clever design recycles nutrients without energy input, clever design eliminates the need for fossil fuel energy to meet human needs. Most human systems have been built using lazy design and motivated by profit. This is why it is so hard for us to live closed loop in our rented city home whilst working. Everyone is trying to extract an output (the profit) from us the physical landscape is disempowering and badly created.

As well as improved design a shift in mind set is needed too. Instead of being afraid that life will not provide what we need Chloe (my wonderful partner) and I entered into our weekend with faith and a sense of adventure. This was in part enabled by experience telling giving us the confidence of abundance and a childish optimism and freedom that you get on holiday. It was however also in part possible because knew we weren’t going to be pressured for time or the need to be ready for the office. We had time to spend doing things usually provided by the use of fossil fuels (e.g. cutting wood, creating nitrogen fertiliser, sourcing and growing food).

A truly amazing and sustainable human existence necessitates a major shift in how we use time. Currently most of us spend most of our time and energies in paid (however poorly) employment. Mostly this is embedded in a system which diverts human energies from a sustainable and sustaining existence towards the opposite. It also forces us to rely on meeting our needs in increasingly unethical and environmentally sound ways. Increased sustainability demands increased time for the masses to take the actions required. Increased well-being also demands increased time to discover what truly brings us joy.

Whilst this allows us to understand the difficulties we face in trying to live in line with deeply held principles it is not an excuse for malaise. I’m off to hunt for ways to close the loop!

Integrated Rewilding

Recently I unexpectedly met a woman who embodied the shift in human consciousness and lifestyle required of us all if humanity is to live sustainably, participating in the dance of life. Her heart, head and hands were utterly in tune, producing the most beautiful example of what a human life can be when we are fully absorbed by the deep knowledge that nature is not a resource, it is alive with spirit.

Her home was a strawbale roundhouse, no more than a few meters in diameter, topped with a green roof making it almost invisible amongst the trees until you are in it. It has no plumbing or electricity, heated by a small semi open fire. Water is collected from a stream, fuel from the woods, food from a garden and foraging, light is provided by candles. To my eyes it looked both like coming home and scarily hard work at the same time. I asked, isn’t it cold? No, the structure is built to be well insulated and is both warm and dry all winter. But what about the dark? Not a problem either, it gives the opportunity to rest, to reflect and to balance the rational and non-rational mind she told me. But isn’t it all hard work? Many hours are spent in leisure, mastering music or effortlessly harvesting wild foods with a small number of hours spent meeting basic needs.

Challenging ideas of the perfect home

Challenging ideas of the perfect home

This woman not only looked healthy and happy but had a most enviable connection with the world around her making her seem much more embedded in life than many of us. She showed me what a rewilded life might look like in Britain. A life utterly embedded in her environment she is as part of it as the ants, the oaks, the dormice or stream. Like everything else in the valley she plays her part in shaping it.

A recent programme on the creation of the Yellowstone wilderness has demanded a re-evaluation of the roles humans have to play in ecosystems. It is easy in a world where we have disproportionally appropriated space, nutrients, energy, species and water for our own purposes to think that we have no part in the wild. We do, we are completely capable of having a wonderful existence which is based on equal participation not complete appropriation. The Baka people of the Central African rainforest are an example of a forest-based, participative culture. In this country we must remind ourselves that whilst wolves may be introduced to be apex predators humans can also perform this function and have done in the past.

New Forest Farm, US designed by Mark Sheppard

New Forest Farm, US designed by Mark Sheppard

The shift from an appropriative to a participative human existence in this country is about meeting human needs whilst restoring a landscapes’ capacity to nurture other life forms. A restorative human existence is required at this time, a way of living which returns life back to places whilst also meeting human needs. Mark Sheppard has made some tangible progress in this direction, focusing on restorative agriculture. He has created tree and perennial dominated growing systems which imitate natural systems. The result is edible woodland and parkland which also serves the function of producing fibres, timber, medicine etc.

Here in the UK we have the highest number of forest gardens, an idea originated by Robert Hart in the 1970’s, compared to any other country. The valuable work done since by dedicated pioneers such as Martin Crawford has shown what life can look like if edible woodlands replaced the fossil fuel based current system. For example the carbohydrate in grains can be replaced with sweet chestnuts and the protein in meat with cobnuts or leaf curd. Annual vegetables can be included but largely replaced by their more nutritious perennial and wild counterparts.

See Graham Bell’s Forest Garden here

Currently these endeavours are often small scale, rarely more than a dozen acres. This is for a good reason. This system is not easily mechanised, although agroforestry (combing the production of tree crops with annual crops) is. Because human labour is required most projects are small, limited by man power and the size of land accessible to individuals, families and small groups of people. What is required is large scale restoration of landscapes, huge untilled polycultures which absorb CO2, provide and cycle habitat, energy and nutrients for all living things. There are many large landowners who are in the position to make this happen. Not relying upon a continuous income from a piece of land allows for the much needed large scale trialling of species and methods in creating food forests.

Numerous landowners are engaging in rewilding projects which are based around introducing top predators and keeping people out, excepting safari-style tourists. These projects have a valuable contribution to make in the project of restoring our island and our relationship with it. I call on yet more landowners, small and large to take on the challenge of integrated rewilding. Of creating landscapes which include people, aim to meet our needs but in ways which restores soil and supports other living things.

Edible woodlands have obvious environmental benefits of preventing CO2 being lost through tillage, locking up CO2 from the atmosphere in trees repairing soils, providing habitat for wildlife, providing resilience in the landscape preventing flooding, etc, the list goes on. They also have a multitude of social benefits centred ranging from the simple aesthetics and mental and physical health benefits of spending time in natural spaces to the intrinsic move towards inclusivity integration and equality entailed by a system which is non-mechanised and enacted in public as well as privately owned places.

Action

Possible moves on this are multiple –

Guerrilla planting public spaces with edibles – see previous post

Supporting forest garden projects near and far – See Agroforestry Research Trust for support on this

Asking those with the ability to make change what is stopping them introducing integrated rewilding into their work.